There is also a Town of Nassau in Rensselaer County. Nassau County is a suburban county on Long Island, immediately east of New York Metropolitan Area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,339,532. The name of the county comes from an old name for Long Island, which was at one time named Nassau, after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange (who later also ruled as King William III of England.) The county colors, orange and blue, are also the colors of the House of Orange. Nassau's county seat is located in the village of Garden City, within theMineola 11501 zip code.
Nassau, together with Suffolk County to its immediate east, are generally referred to as "Long Island" by area residents as distinct from the New York City boroughs of Queens (Queens County) andBrooklyn (Kings County), which are geographically on the island's westernmost end. Two cities, three towns, 64 incorporated villages, and numerous unincorporated hamlets are located within the county. The U.S. Postal Service has organized Nassau County into 111 different 5-digit ZIP codes served by 67 postal address names. Each post office has the same name as a city, hamlet, or village, but the boundaries are seldom the same. n 2010, Forbes magazine released its American Community Survey and named Nassau County number 11 in its list of the top 25 richest counties in America. The survey also named Nassau County the number one richest county per capita in the State of New York, with a median household income of $93,579.
Several alternate names had been considered for the county, including Matinecock (a village within the county currently has that name), Norfolk (presumably because of the proximity to Suffolk County), Bryant, and Sagamore. However, Nassau had the historical advantage of having at one time been the name of Long Island itself, and was the name most mentioned when the new county was proposed as early as 1876.
History: The area now designated Nassau County was originally the eastern 70% of Queens County, one of the original 12 counties formed in 1683, and was then contained within two towns: Hempstead andOyster Bay. In 1784, following the American Revolutionary War, the Town of Hempstead was split in two, when Patriots in the northern part formed the new Town of North Hempstead, leaving Loyalist majorities in the Town of Hempstead. In 1898 the western portion of Queens County became a borough of the City of Greater New York, leaving the eastern portion a part of Queens County but not part of the Borough of Queens. As part of the city consolidation plan, all town and county governments within the borough were dissolved. The areas not part of the consolidation included all of the Town of North Hempstead, all of the Town of Oyster Bay, and most of the Town of Hempstead (excluding the Rockaway Peninsula, which was separated from the Town of Hempstead and became part of the city borough). In 1899, following approval from the state legislature, the three towns were separated from Queens County and the new county of Nassau was constituted.
In preparation for the new county, in November 1898, voters had selected Mineola to become the county seat for the new county (before Mineola incorporated as a village in 1906 and set its boundaries almost entirely within the Town of North Hempstead), winning out over Hicksville and Hempstead. The Garden City Company (founded in 1893 by the heirs of Alexander Turney Stewart) donated four acres of land for the county buildings in the town of Hempstead, just south of the Mineola train station and the present day village of Mineola. The land and the buildings have a Mineola postal address, but are within the present day Village of Garden City, which did not incorporate, nor set its boundaries, until 1919.
In 1917, the village of Glen Cove was granted a city charter, making it independent from the Town of Oyster Bay. In 1918, the village of Long Beach was incorporated in the Town of Hempstead. In 1922, it became a city, making it independent of the town. These are the only two cities in Nassau County.The United Nations Security Council was temporarily located in Nassau County from 1946 to 1951. Council meetings were held at the Sperry Gyroscope headquarters in the village of Lake Success near the border with Queens County. It was here on June 27, 1950, that the Security Council voted to back U.S. President Harry S Truman and send a coalition of forces to the Korean Peninsula, leading to the Korean War.
In 1947, William Levitt built his first planned community in Nassau County, in the Island Trees section (later renamed Levittown). (This should not be confused with the county's first planned community, in general, which is Garden City). In later decades, communities such as Wantagh, East Meadow, Massapequa, Massapequa Park, and Franklin Square began to grow. During the latter part of the 20th Century, Nassau County saw an influx of migrants from the five boroughs of New York City, especially Brooklyn and Queens, who left their urban dwellings for a more suburban setting. This led to a massive population boom in the county, especially on the south shore. In 1994, Federal Judge Arthur Spatt declared the Nassau County Board of Supervisors unconstitutional and directed that a 19-member legislature be formed. Elections were held and Republicans won 13 seats and elected Bruce Blakeman as its first Presiding Officer (Speaker). Among the first class were current legislators Peter J. Schmitt, Judith Jacobs, John Ciotti, Dennis Dunne Sr., Francis X. Becker, Vincent T. Muscarella, and current County Executive, Ed Mangano.
In the 1990s, Nassau County saw huge budget problems, forcing the county to near bankruptcy. The county government increased taxes to prevent a takeover by the state of New York. This has led to the county having notoriously high property taxes, leaving some migrants from New York City, who were seeking a suburban lifestyle, to move to Suffolk County, the Hudson Valley, New Jersey, Connecticut or Pennsylvania. The economy has been booming and according to the United States Census Bureau, residents of Nassau County have among the highest per capita wealth in the country. Nassau County has also experienced heavy urbanization in many areas, including Hempstead, Freeport, Mineola and Westbury, leading some observers to say that parts of the county resemble the New York City boroughs outside Manhattan rather than being a suburb. Despite its booming economy, on January 27, 2011, a New York State oversight board seized control of Nassau County's finances, saying the wealthy and heavily taxed county had nevertheless failed to balance its $2.6 billion budgets.
Suffolk County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. Located on the eastern portion of Long Island, it is the easternmost county in the state and part of the New York metropolitan area. Largely suburban, it is the fourth-most populous county in the state, with 1,493,350 people as of the 2010 census. It was named after the county of Suffolk in England, from where its earliest settlers came. The largest of Long Island's four counties, and the second-largest of 62 in the state, it measures 86 miles (138 km) in length and 26 miles (42 km) in width at its widest (including water).Its county seat is Riverhead, though many county offices are in Hauppauge on the west side of the county where most of the population lives. There are also offices in Smithtown, for the legislature,Yaphank, and Farmingville. Suffolk and Nassau counties together are generally referred to as "Long Island" by area residents — as distinct from the New York City boroughs of Queens (Queens County) and Brooklyn (Kings County), which geographically make up the island's western end.
Suffolk County was an original county of the Province of New York, one of twelve created in 1683. It was known for a time as East Riding of Yorkshire. Its boundaries were essentially the same as at present, with only minor changes in the boundary with its western neighbor, which was originally Queens County but has been Nassau County since the separation of Nassau from Queens in 1899.
According to the Suffolk County website, the county is the leading agricultural county in the state of New York, saying that: "The weather is temperate, clean water is abundant, and the soil is so good that Suffolk is the leading agricultural county in New York State. That Suffolk is still number one in farming, even with the development that has taken place, is a tribute to thoughtful planning, along with the excellent soil, favorable weather conditions, and the work of dedicated farmers in this region."
Suffolk County occupies the easternmost portion of Long Island, in the southeastern portion of New York State. The eastern end of the county splits into two peninsulas, known as the North Fork and theSouth Fork. The county is surrounded by water on three sides, including the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound, with 980 miles (1,580 km) of coastline. The eastern end contains large bays.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,373 square miles (6,150 km2) of which 912 square miles (2,400 km2) is land and 1,461 square miles (3,780 km2) (61.56%) is water, making it the second largest county by area in the state of New York, and 66% of the land area of Long Island.
The highest elevation in the county, and on Long Island as a whole, is Jayne's Hill in West Hills, at 401 feet (122 m) above sea level. Suffolk County is divided into 10 towns: Babylon, Brookhaven, East Hampton, Huntington, Islip, Riverhead, Shelter Island, Smithtown, Southampton, and Southold. Also part of the county, but not considered parts of the above towns, are the Poospatuck and Shinnecock Indian reservations. Poospatuck is enclaved within Brookhaven in the Mastic CDP, and Shinnecock is enclaved within Southampton, adjacent toSouthampton village, Tuckahoe, and Shinnecock Hills. Major facilities include Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton and Plum Island Animal Disease Center on Plum Island. Several airports serve commuters and business travelers, most notably Long Island MacArthur Airport in Islip, Republic Airport in East Farmingdale and Francis S. Gabreski Airport in Westhampton Beach.